The testes primarily release testosterone, and the ovaries predominantly dispense estrogen.The production of these hormones increases gradually until sexual maturation is met.
Males experience their growth spurt about two years later, on average, than females.
During their peak height velocity (the time of most rapid growth), adolescents grow at a growth rate nearly identical to that of a toddler—about 4 inches (10.3 cm) a year for males and 3.5 inches (9 cm) for females.
For example, researchers in neuroscience or bio-behavioral health might focus on pubertal changes in brain structure and its effects on cognition or social relations.
Sociologists interested in adolescence might focus on the acquisition of social roles (e.g., worker or romantic partner) and how this varies across cultures or social conditions.
Puberty occurs through a long process and begins with a surge in hormone production, which in turn causes a number of physical changes.