Paper that since the industrial revolution had become a disposable material, made in seemingly inexhaustible quantities, is nowadays becoming a rare commodity in libraries, archives and museums.
Attempts to preserve our archives on paper have, for the moment, miserably failed on a world-wide scale.
The stories about the transition period between writing and printing books rather illustrate a fascinating stage in Western thinking about Muslim culture. The availability of paper suddenly made it possible to register memories of all sorts and also to do that on a grand scale.
With paper so much more became possible, because it is a durable medium that is easy and inexpensive to produce, and it could be easily recycled into new paper.
A variety of repairs and replacements are attested in the Islamic bookmaking tradition.