It is in this region where the concentration of Panchaea/Azanian period settlements has been discovered.If the island of Menuthias mentioned in the Periplus was Zanzibar, a short voyage south would land one in the Rufiji region.] comes the very last port of trade on the coast of Azania, called Rhapta ["sewn"], a name derived from the aforementioned sewn boats, where there are great quantities of ivory and tortoise shell." "The actual location of the Azanian capital, Rhapta, remains unknown.
As early as 50 CE, Opone was well known as a center for the cinnamon trade, along with the trading of cloves and other spices, ivory, exotic animal skins and incense.
"After Avalites there is another market-town, better than this, called Malao, distant a sail of about eight hundred stadia.
The name lakkos appears nowhere else in ancient Greek or Roman literature.
The name re-surfaces in late medieval Latin as lacca, borrowed from medieval Arabic lakk in turn borrowed from Sanskritic lakh, meaning lac i.e. In the 10th-century manuscript, the text is attributed to Arrian, probably for no deeper reason than that the manuscript was adjacent to the Periplus Ponti Euxini written by him.
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea describes the trading empire of Himyar and Saba, regrouped under a single ruler Charibael (Karab Il Watar Yuhan'em II), who is said to have been on friendly terms with Rome: "23.